A Brief History
Humans settled in Wales around 9000 BC. The Celtic people had been pushed from Europe and settled in Wales, among other locations. The Romans dominated the region by 79 AD and would remain in control of Wales until the 5th century when the Anglo-Saxon's invaded the island, pushing the Romans out. Wales was a collection of small kingdoms without an official boundary until the 8th century when a wall was built to protect against Welsh attacks.
Gradually Wales would come under the English crown at the end of the 13th century. But continued revolt and uprising against English rule would continue until the early 15th Century. Wales became a part of Great Britain in 1707 and then the United Kingdom in 1801.
Even as a part of the United Kingdom, the Welsh retained their language and culture.
In 1997 the Welsh people voted to have more autonomy from Great Britain and the Welsh Assembly was set up in 1999.
Coat of Arms; By Sodacan This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape. - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12837229